When you visit this website, information may be recorded in “cookie” files stored in the browser of your terminal (computer, tablet or mobile phone). This page explains what a cookie is, what it is used for and how you can accept or reject those that are not essential to the operation and management of the site.

What is a cookie?

A cookie is a small text file containing small amounts of information (in particular an identifier in the form of a number, a session for example, a choice of language, a code to protect your browsing, the name of the server that deposited it and possibly an expiry date) and likely to be stored temporarily, subject to your choices for cookies not necessary for the operation of the site, on the hard disk of your terminal when you consult a website using your browser software. Cookies are managed by your web browser and the user can read them by right-clicking on the web page and “Inspect code”.

Only the sender of a cookie can modify the information contained in it. A cookie can be either a session cookie or a permanent (or persistent) cookie.

A session cookie persists only during the browsing session and is deleted when the browser is closed. A permanent cookie is set for a specific period of time. This type of cookie remains on the terminal until it expires or until it is deleted from the computer via the browser settings or extensions.

The cookie does not identify you personally, only your terminal’s browser. Some cookies require your prior consent before being installed on your terminal.

What are cookies used for?

The different types of cookie

Mandatory cookies

These are cookies placed exclusively by the site publisher. They are essential for navigation on the site. These cookies cannot be deactivated or configured, otherwise you will no longer be able to access the site or its services and/or their display will be altered. They enable you to use the main features of the site and to secure your connection. Depositing these cookies does not require your prior consent. Their lifetime generally does not exceed the duration of the session.

Functional cookies

These cookies are necessary for the operation of the site. The placement of these cookies does not require your prior consent. These cookies are used to:

  • Compile anonymous statistics on visits to and use of the various components of the site to enable the publisher to administer and improve the site.
  • Adapt the presentation of the site to your terminal’s display preferences (language used, display resolution, operating system used, etc.) during your visits to the site, depending on the hardware and viewing or reading software that your terminal is equipped with.

This site uses the web analysis tool Matomo (formerly Piwik), which complies with the RGPD specifications. This Matomo tool can deposit several cookies with a lifespan ranging from session time or a few tens of minutes to 11 months.

FGT Server Security and distribution of content1 hour
_pk_sesFrequency stats; MATOMO (Piwik)Session30 minutes
_pk_idFrequency stats; MATOMO (Piwik)Statistics of visited webpages11 months
_pk_testcookieFrequency stats; MATOMO (Piwik)Verify if browser accepts cookiesSession
MATOMO_SESSIDFrequency stats; MATOMO (Piwik)SecuritySession

“Third party” cookies Some sites may include computer applications from third parties who may place “social”, advertising, targeting and tracking cookies. In particular the services :

  • Consent or refusal to deposit cookies by the Axeptio tool, published by the French company Agilitation, which has been selected to manage cookies.
  • Viewing content via hosts such as YouTube, Dailymotion, etc. for videos.
  • For sharing information on social networks, which allow you to share content on the site with other people or to let these other people know about your consultation or your opinion regarding content on our site.

The cookies placed by these third parties may remember the pages and websites you have visited and may collect personal data such as IP address and share it with third parties. These cookies enable advertising agencies to present you with targeted and personalised advertising. They have a variable lifespan, ranging from session time or a few tens of minutes to several years. This site has no control over the process used by content hosts and social networks to collect information relating to your browsing and associated with the personal data they hold. You can manage the placement of these cookies. To view certain content, you must first accept cookies from these third parties.

How do I manage cookies?

Cookies whose sole purpose is not to enable or facilitate communication by electronic means or which are not strictly necessary for the provision of an online communication service at the express request of the user require the prior consent of the Internet user.

Tracers whose purpose is limited to measuring the anonymous audience of the site or application, in order to meet the various needs required for the operation and day-to-day administration of a website are not subject to consent.

To manage cookies, you have several complementary options:

  • Accept or refuse unnecessary or non-functional cookies using the Axeptio-certified consent tool. A “Cookie management” widget button allows you to accept or refuse cookies requiring consent, in particular those from third-party companies. The widget provides information on the purposes of these cookies and a link to their privacy protection policy via a “?”.
  • Exercise your choices with third-party companies by consulting their privacy protection policy. There you will find the purposes for which they are used, in particular advertising, and the browsing information they may collect using the application buttons available on the site consulted. You can therefore configure your user accounts to accept or refuse the cookies placed by these companies.
  • Control cookies using your browser settings. Most of these cookies can be deactivated by setting your browser so that it only accepts cookies from the sites you visit (refuse “third-party sites”, tick the Do not track me box on most browsers) in your browser preferences. In “Private Browsing” mode, cookies will only disappear when you close your browser window.

How do I configure browsers?
Browser settings

In order to manage cookies as closely as possible to your wishes, we invite you to configure your browser according to the purpose of the cookies:

  • The browser can be set to warn you before a cookie is installed.
  • The browser can also be set to refuse all types of cookies or only third-party cookies.
  • Any cookies already installed on the computer can be deleted.
  • Each browser must be set up separately to refuse cookies.

Disable/Delete Cookies on your browser

For Internet Explorer™:

For Safari™:

For Safari™mobile:

For Chrome™:

For Firefox™:

For Opera™:

For Microsoft Edge™:

Use blockers for cookies and other trackers via browser extensions such as:

  • Privacy Badger from the Electronic Frontier Foundation for Edge, Chrome, Fierfox, Opera, Firefox on Android
  • EditThisCookie for Chrome and Opera browsers

Warning: blocking mandatory or functional cookies may disrupt your browsing experience and restrict the services offered.

Manage advertising cookies for certain advertisers on two professional platforms and at Google:


Deactivate social network cookies

  • Facebook:
  • Twitter :
  • LinkedIn:

Setting up your smartphone

For iOS™:

For Android™:

Other browsers: For more information on how to manage cookies via other browsers, please consult your documentation or online help files.

You can also consult the CNIL website to learn how to set your browser to control the deposit of cookies on your terminal.

Do you have any questions about cookies on this site?

If you have any questions about the CNRS cookie management policy, please contact the CNRS Data Protection Officer
By email:

Information specific to cookies

Cookies are small text files stored by your browser which are used to identify you each time you change pages on a site. This site does not use cookies to track your activity. The “pll_language” cookie is only used to detect the browser language and expires at the end of your visit. When the homepage is visited, it redirects to itself in the language preferred by your browser.

Any third-party cookies (e.g. Google) may appear when browsing certain pages, but only if you have previously accepted the privacy policy of the sender on their original sites; they are not necessary for the operation of our site.

For more information on cookies, please consult the CNIL website:

Disclaimer of liability

The CNRS and the CEA cannot be held liable in any way for the content of the information on this site or for the consequences that may result from its use or interpretation.

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